!!> PDF / Epub ✈ Ὀδύσσεια ⚣ Author Homer – Instaposter.us

ὈδύσσειαThe Odyssey Greek , Od Sseia Is One Of Two Major Ancient Greek Epic Poems Attributed To Homer It Is, In Part, A Sequel To The Iliad, The Other Work Traditionally Ascribed To Homer The Poem Is Fundamental To The Modern Western Canon Indeed It Is The Second The Iliad Being The First Extant Work Of Western Literature It Was Probably Composed Near The End Of The Eighth Century BC, Somewhere In Ionia, The Then Greek Controlled Coastal Region Of What Is Now Turkey.The Poem Mainly Centers On The Greek Hero Odysseus Or Ulysses, As He Was Known In Roman Myths And His Long Journey Home Following The Fall Of Troy It Takes Odysseus Ten Years To Reach Ithaca After The Ten Year Trojan War In His Absence, It Is Assumed He Has Died, And His Wife Penelope And Son Telemachus Must Deal With A Group Of Unruly Suitors, The Mnesteres Greek Or Proci, Competing For Penelope S Hand In Marriage.It Continues To Be Read In Homeric Greek And Translated Into Modern Languages Around The World The Original Poem Was Composed In An Oral Tradition By An Aoidos, Perhaps A Rhapsode, And Was Intended To Be Sung Than Read The Details Of The Ancient Oral Performance, And The Story S Conversion To A Written Work Inspire Continual Debate Among Scholars The Odyssey Was Written In A Regionless Poetic Dialect Of Greek And Comprises 12,110 Lines Of Dactylic Hexameter Among The Most Impressive Elements Of The Text Are Its Strikingly Modern Non Linear Plot, And The Fact That Events Are Shown To Depend As Much On The Choices Made By Women And Serfs As On The Actions Of Fighting Men In The English Language As Well As Many Others, The Word Odyssey Has Come To Refer To An Epic Voyage.

is considered the author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest of ancient Greek epic poets These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is unknown Herodotus estimates that Homer lived 400 years before his own time, which would place him at around 850 BCE, while other ancient sources claim that he lived much nearer to the supposed time of the Trojan War, in the early 12th century BCE Most modern researchers place Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BCE.The formative influence of the Homeric epics in shaping Greek culture was widely recognized, and Homer was described as the teacher of Greece Homer s works, which are about fifty percent speeches, provided models in persuasive speaking and writing that were emulated throughout the ancient and medieval Greek worlds Fragments of Homer account for nearly half of all identifiable Greek literary papyrus finds.

10 thoughts on “Ὀδύσσεια

  1. says:

    Quite possibly one of my favourite books It was this novel that ignited my love for Greek and Roman mythology and antiquity leading me to choose a degree in Classical Civilisations.I always look back on The Odyssey with fondness I love all the monsters he faces and the gods who involve themselves with Odysseus trials as he makes his way home after the Trojan War.LOVE LOVE LOVE.

  2. says:

    So my first non school related experience with Homer s classic tale, and my most powerful impression, beyond the overall splendor of the story, wasHOLY SHIT SNACKS these Greeks were a violent bunch Case in point they hauled him out through the doorway into the court, lopped his nose and ears with a ruthless knife, tore his genitals out for the dogs to eat rawand in manic fury hacked off hands and feet then once they d washed their own hands and feet they went inside again to join odysseus.their work was done here now. Their work was done here now What a great line Want violence you say How about slaughtering over 100 house guests for over indulging in your hospitality Can you say overkill And for the true splatter junkies out there, you can add in some casual rapes, widespread maiming, a score of people squishing, crew members being chewed and swallowed, healthy doses of mutilation and torture, and one cyclops blinding That should make even the most discriminating gore hound leg humping happy Yesthat s meguilty However, beyond the cockle warming violence and mayhem, this is a rocking good story that I enjoyed as in smile on my face thinking this is genuinely cool much than I expected to going into it There is nothing dry or plodding about the story Beautifully written, and encompassing themes of love, loyalty and heroism while commenting on many facets of the human condition As important as this story is to literature, it is above all elseENTERTAINING In fact, without its massive entertainment factor, I m pretty sure it s overall importance among the classics would be significantly reduced Thankfully, there is no risk of that A NOTE ON THE TEXT Before I continue, I want to comment on the version I read listened to because I think can be critical to people s reaction to the story There are a TRUCKLOAD of Odyssey translations out there and, from what I ve seen, they range wider in quality and faithfulness to the original text than those of almost any other work of Western Literature These versions can differ so much that I believe two people with identical reading tastes could each read a different translation and walk away with vastly different opinions on the work The version I am reviewing and from which the above quote is derived is the Robert Fagles translation which uses contemporary prose and structure while remaining faithful to the content of the original I found it a terrific place for a first experience with this work because of how easy to follow it was Plus, I listened to the audio version read by Sir Ian McKellen which was an amazing experience and one I HIGHLY RECOMMEND In addition to the Fagles version, I also own the Alexander Pope translation as part of my Easton Press collection of The 100 Greatest Books Ever Written While listening to the Fagles version, I would often follow along with the Pope translation and let me tell you.they are vastly different While the overall story is the same, the presentation, prose and the structure are nothing alike As an example, here is the same passage I quoted earlier from the Pope translation Then forth they led ______ , and beganTheir bloody work they lopp d away the man,Morsel for dogs then trimm d with brazen shears The wretch, and shorten d of his nose and ears His hands and feet last felt the cruel steel He roar d, and torments gave his soul to hell.They wash, and to Ulysses take their way So ends the bloody business of the day. Very different treatments of the same scene In my opinion, the Pope language is beautiful and far poetic and lyrical than the Fagles translation However, I am glad I started with the Fagles version because it provided me with a much better comprehension of the story itself No head scratching moments Now that I have a firm grounding in the story, I plan to go back at some point and read the Pope version so that I can absorb the greater beauty of that translation In a nutshell, I m saying that you should make sure you find a translation that works for you That s my two or three cents THE STORY So Odysseus, master strategist and tactician not to mention schemer, manipulator and liar extraordinaire , travels home to Ithaca after the Trojan War Delays and detours ensue which take up the first half of the story Most of these travel snags are caused by Poseidon, who is grudging on Odysseus for stick poking Poseidon s son i.e the Cyclops in the peeper Not to fear, Athena goddess of guile and craftiness is a proud sponsor of Odysseus and, along with some help for big daddy god Zeus, throws Odysseus some Olympian help Odysseus travels are full of great summer blockbuster like entertainment and at the same time explore all manner of Greek daily life as well as touching on many of their beliefs and traditions It really is a perfect blend of fun and brain food From his time on the island homes of the goddesses Calypso and Circe who he gets busy with despite his undying love for his wife, Penelopemen huh , to his run ins with the giant Laestrygonians and the Lotus eaters i.e., thugs and drugs and his fateful encounter with the Cyclops, Polyphemus Odysseus even takes a jaunt to the underworld where he speaks to Achilles and gets to listen to dead king Agamemnon go on an anti marriage rant because his conniving wife poisoned him to death Homer does a superb job of keeping the story epic while providing the reader with wonderful details about the life of the greek people during this period The man had story telling chops. Meanwhile, while Odysseus is engaged in the ancient greek version of the Amazing Race, back on Ithaca we ve got a full fledged version of the Bachelorette going on as over a hundred suitors are camped out at Odysseus pad trying to get Penelope to give them a rose This has Odysseus son, Telemachus, on the rage because the suitors are eating, drinking and servant boinking him out of his entire inheritance while they wait on Penelope You might think that Telemachus could just kick the freeloaders out, but the law of hospitality was huge for the Greeks and the suitor douches use it to full advantage Well Odysseus eventually makes it back to Ithaca, alone and in disguise, after all of this crew have been eaten, squashed, drowned or otherwise rendered life impaired Not an easy place to live is ancient Greece Odysseus proceeds to work a web of deceit and revenge against the suitors that is a wonder to behold I ll leave the final climax to you, but I will say that there was no free lunch in Homer s time and the checks that people wrote with their bad behavior are paid in full MY THOUGHTS This was a fun, fun, fun read I want to start with that because this is not one of those classics that I think is worth while only to get it under your belt or checked off a list This was a great story with great characters and in a style that was both off the usual path but still easy to follow Going back to my comments on the various versions of the story, I think this may end up being a five star read in one of the flowery, densely poetic translations where the emotion and passion is just a bit in your face I am still thrilled to have listened to the version I did especially as read by Gandalf because I now have a firm foundation in the story and can afford to be a bit adventurous with my next version The tone of the story is heroic and yet very dark The gods are capricious and temperamental and cause a whole lot of death and devastation for nothing than a bruised ego or even a whim The pace of the story is fast and moves quickly with hardly a chance to even catch your breath It is a big epic storyit is THE BIG EPIC STORYand its reputation is well deserved A terrific read as well as one of the most important works in the Western canon Definitely worth your time 4.5 stars HIGHEST POSSIBLE RECOMMENDATION

  3. says:

    Okay, so here s what happened I went out after work with the guys, we went to a perfectly nice bar, this chick was hitting on me but I totally brushed her off Anyway we ended up getting pretty wrecked, and we might have smoked something in the bathroom, I m not totally clear on that part, and then this gigantic one eyed bouncer kicked us out so we somehow ended up at a strip club The guys were total pigs but not me, seriously, that s not glitter on my neck And then we totally drove right by these hookers without even stopping and here I am Only a little bit late By the way, I crashed the car and six of the guys are in jail Ask for Officer Scylla EhHomer s right Odysseus version is better.P.S Do not try this story at home unless, when you get there, you re still capable of shooting your arrow into a narrow aperture.Fagles translation is excellent the new standard and Bernard Knox s enormous introduction is the best Homeric essay I ve ever read.A good companion read is Hal Roth s We Followed Odysseus maybe not the most eloquent of books, but he retraces Odysseus s voyage as best he can in his sailboat, which is a pretty rad idea I recreated his route as a Google map here, with notes on each of the stops I also wrote summaries of each book of the Odyssey for a book club discussion I ve pasted them in the comments thread below, if you re interested.

  4. says:

    I have read The Odyssey three times The first was not really a read but of a listen in the true oral tradition During embroidery class one of us, young girls on the verge of entering the teens, would read a passage while the rest were all busy with our eyes and fingers, our needles and threads All learning to be future Penelopes crafty with their crafts, cultivated, patient and loyal And all wives.The second read was already as an adult That time I let myself be led by the adventures and imagination of the resourceful one Relishing on the literary rhythm of the hexameters I particularly enjoyed the epithets used by the bards to keep the attention of the listeners Dawn of the rosy fingers was my favourite By then my embroideries were far away from my mind.This third time I read it in preparation for tackling Joyce s take on Homer And this time, with a detached stance, I have been surprised by the structure of the work, the handling of time, and the role of narration And those aspects I take with me in this third reading.Of the twenty four books, the first four or Telemachiad, are preliminary Acting as an overture they take place not too long before the main action The following four are another preamble, which take place roughly at the same time as the previous four The son and the father are getting ready to meet almost at the end of twenty years of their separation with ten at the war and ten coming back.Then, and this was my surprise, what I always thought of as the core of the Odyssey the magical adventures with the Cyclops and Polyphemus, the Lotus Eaters, the Sirens, Circe and the trip to the Underworld, the Laestrygonias, Scylla and Charybdis, the Sun God etc, forming what is called the Apologoi, are a very small part of the book All of these eventful episodes take place along three years before the seven that Odysseus is amorously trapped by Kalypso And these are narrated, after the fact, by Odysseus himself in just four chapters chapters nine to twelve So, to what in my mind was the meat of the Odyssey is only 17% of the book And if one recalls what a great deceiver Odysseus can be, one could always wonder at these fables.The rest, the remaining twelve chapters, or half of the book, is the actual Homecoming.What I have realized now is that The Odyssey is really about this Homecoming And that is what we witness directly All the enchanted adventures are told tales Odysseus as the bard chanting his own stories in the court of the Phaeacians A supreme teller since through his fables he has to build the image of the hero that his, possibly dangerous, audience see and do not see Odysseus as myth and myth maker No wonder his epithet of the resourceful one.If the Homecoming had previously stayed in my mind as just an expected end, in which all the invective and riveting elements are drearily put at an end, as if one could already close the door and leave, the one I have read now surprised me by its dramatization A different craft is at stage.The bard enacts the process of Justice performing through an act of Revenge There is no layered telling of the tale In the last half of the poem the pace and complexity of the various elements as they converge in the palace to play out divine retribution in which success does not seem assured, not even to the great Odysseus who knows he has Athena s support , has seemed, this third time round, magisterial.And it is Penelope the patient, the apprehensive, the one who for twenty years has protected her mistrust with her weaving, the one who, with her threads, offers the needed opportunity that the resourceful hero is at pains to find When she announces that she is about to end to the tapestry that has become her life, the beggar can then put also an end to the agony.Crafted Homecoming.

  5. says:

    Ever since I first read Homer s epic describing the adventures of Odysseus back in my school days, three of those adventures fired my imagination The Lotus Eaters, The Cyclops and the Sirens, most especially the Sirens I just did revisit these sections of this Greek epic and my imagination was set aflame yet again How much, you ask Here is my microfiction as a tribute to the great poet THE SIRENS This happened back in those days when I was a member of an experimental performing arts troupe down in Greenwich Village We would read poetry, dance and act out avant garde plays in our dilapidated little theater For a modest charge people could come in and watch for as long as they wanted.Somehow, a business executive who worked downtown in the financial district heard of what we were doing and spoke with our director about an act he has all worked out but needed a supporting cast and that he would pay handsomely if we went along with him.Well, experimental is experimental and if we were going to be well paid we had nothing to lose The first thing he did was pass out our costumes In addition to himself, he had parts for three men and three women The play we were to perform was so simple we didn t even need a written script He was to be Odysseus from Homer s epic and three men would be his sailors As for the women, we would be the singing Sirens.So, after he changed quite a sight in a loincloth, being gray haired, jowly, pasty skinned and potbellied we went on stage and he told the sailors how no man has ever heard the hypnotic songs of the Sirens and lived to tell the tale but he, mighty Odysseus, would be the first He instructed the sailors to tie him to the ship s mast They used one of the building s pillars and when he cried out as the Sirens sang their song the sailors, who had wax in their ears, were to bind him to the mast even tighter.Meanwhile, three of us ladies were on stage as the Sirens, in costume, bare breasted and outfitted with wings We began singing a sweet, lilting melody Mike that was the businessman s name started screaming and the sailors tightened the ropes that bound him The sailors were glad their ears were plugged as Mike screamed for nearly half an hour When the ship passed out of earshot of the Sirens, the sailors unbound mighty Odysseus and he collapsed on our makeshift stage, a mass of exhausted middle aged flesh The audience applauded, even cheered and we continued our performance of Odysseus and the Sirens every night for than a week Then one night Mike outdid himself His blue eyes bulged, the veins in his neck popped and his face turned a deeper blood scarlet than ever before And what I feared might happen, did happen Mike had a heart attack We had to interrupt our performance and call an ambulance.We all thought that was the end of our dealing with Mike aka Odysseus until our director received a call from the hospital Mike told her he was going to be just fine and would be back on stage next week We called a meeting and everyone agreed that we would suggest Mike seek psychiatric help but if he insists on playing Odysseus, he will have to take his act elsewhere.

  6. says:

    I m not normally a praying man, but if you re up there, please save me, Superman Homer Simpson Following James Joyce s lead, I used Homer s heroic story as inspiration and research for a novel in progress.But how can I, a mere mortal, do justice to the most famous epic poem ever written An encounter with a work of this magnitude should be shared, rather than reviewed.Homer is the great, great, great recurring grand daddy of modern literature and this colossus is as immortal as the gods within it And what a tale this must have been, way back in the 8th century BC Then, it was sung, rather than read, and I guess the first to bear witness must have been jigging about in their togas with unbridled excitement.Alas, I didn t read it in ancient Greek, as Homer had intended My copy was transcribed to a Kindle, rather than papyri, and translated by none other than the genius that was Alexander Pope yep, I went old school on this.Odysseus, he of the title, otherwise known in Latin as Ulysses, embarks on a perilous, stop start, um, odyssey, attempting to get home to Ithaca after fighting in the Trojan War for a decade.Such an amazing story, overflowing with an abundance of adventure Poor Odysseus, having battled treacherous seas, wrathful gods, enchanting sirens and a Cyclops, then has to put up with big bad Poseidon weighing in with some nautical muscle and shipwrecking his boat Plagued by setback after setback, the journey home takes TEN gruelling years to complete And, as if that wasn t bad enough, wife Penelope has meanwhile given up hope of him returning home alive and is being courted by one hundred suitors, none of whom are fit to kiss our hero s sandals.This is by no means a page turner and some background knowledge is required to appreciate the finer points Pope has done an amazing job to remain somewhat sympathetic to the timbre of Homer s lyrical story, and his rhyming couplets are a thing to behold But when the star of eve with golden lightAdorn d the matron brow of night Beautiful Homer the poet, not the cartoon character has fuelled the imagination of countless authors throughout the centuries, and therefore it would be sacrilege for me to award anything less than five heroic stars.

  7. says:

    The first line in Emily Wilson s new translation of the Odyssey, the first by a woman scholar, is Tell me about a complicated man In an article by Wyatt Mason in the NYT late last year, Wilson tells us I could ve said, Tell me about a straying husband And that s a viable translation That s one of the things the original language says But I want to be super responsible about my relationship to the Greek text I want to be saying, after multiple different revisions This is the best I can get toward the truth Oh, the mind reels This new translation by Emily Wilson reads swiftly, smoothly, and feels contemporary This exciting new translation will surprise you, and send you to compare certain passages with earlier translations In her Introduction, Wilson raises that issue of translation herself How is it possible to have so many different translations, all of which could be considered correct Wilson reminds us what a ripping good yarn this story is, and removes any barriers to understanding We can come to it with our current sensibility and find in it all kinds of foretelling and parallels with life today, and perhaps we even see the genesis of our own core morality, a morality that feels inexplicably learned Perhaps the passed down sense of right and wrong, of fairness and justice we read of here was learned through these early stories and lessons from the gods Or are we interpreting the story to fit our sensibility These delicious questions operate in deep consciousness while we pleasure in learning about that liar Odysseus, described again and again as wily, scheming, cunning, his lies were like truth He learned how to bend the truth at his grandfather s knee, and the gods exploited that talent when they helped him out The skill served him well, allowing him to confuse and evade captors throughout his ordeal, as well as keep his wife and father in the dark about his identity upon his return until he could reveal the truth at a time of maximum impact.There does inevitably come a time when people react cautiously to what is told them, even to the evidence their own eyes The gods can cloud one s understanding, it is well known, and truth is suspected in every encounter These words Penelope speaks Please forgive me, do not keep bearing a grudge because when I first saw you,I would not welcome you immediately.I felt a constant dread that some bad manwould fool me with his lies There are so manydishonest, clever men Particularly easy to relate to today are descriptions of Penelope s ungrateful suitors like Ctesippius, who encouraged by extraordinary wealth, had come to court Odysseus wife Also speaking insight for us today are the phrases Weapons themselves can tempt a man to fight and Arms themselves can prompt a man to use them There is a conflicted view of women in this story Sex sways all women s minds, even the best of them, though Penelope is a paragon of virtue, managing to avoid temptation through her own duplicitousness She hardly seems a victim at all in this reading, merely an unwilling captor She is strong, smart, loyal, generous, and brave, all the qualities any man would want for his wife.We understand the slave girls that Odysseus felt he had to test for loyalty were at the disposal of the ungrateful suitors who, after they ate and drank at Penelope s expense, often met the house girls after hours Some of the girls appeared to go willingly, laughing and teasing as they went, and were outspoken about their support of the men they d taken up with Others, we get the impression from the text, felt they had no choice.Race is not mentioned but once in this book, very matter of factly, though the darker man is a servant to the lighter one Odysseus had a valet with him,I do remember, named Eurybates,a man a little older than himself,who had black skin, round shoulders, woolly hair, and was Odysseus s favorite our of all his crewbecause his mind matched his Odysseus s tribulations are terrible, but appear to be brought on by his own stubborn and petulant nature, like his taunting of the blinded Cyclops from his own escaping ship Cyclops was Poseidon s son so Odysseus s behavior was especially unwise, particularly since his own men were yelling at him to stop Later, that betrayal of the men s best interests for his own childish purpose will come back to haunt Odysseus when the men suspect him of thinking only of himself greediness and unleash terrible winds by accident, blowing them tragically off course in rugged seas We watch, fascinated, as the gods seriously mess Odysseus about, and then come to his aid We really get the sense of the gods playing, as in Athena s willingness to give Odysseus strength and arms when fighting the suitors in his house, but being unwilling to actually step in to help with the fighting Instead, she watched from the rafters It s hard not to be just a little resentful Wilson s translation reads very fast and very clearly There always seemed to be some ramp up time reading Greek myths in the past, but now the adventures appear perfectly accessible Granted, there are some names you ll have to figure out, but that s part of being constructively lost, as Pynchon says.A book by book reading of this new translation will begin March 1st on the Goodreads website, hosted by Kris Rabberman, Wilson s colleague at the University of Pennsylvania To prepare for the first online discussion later this week, Kris has suggested participants read the Introduction If interested readers are still not entirely convinced they want this literary experience now, some excerpts have been reprinted in The Paris Review.

  8. says:

    It s impossible not to smile when you start reading such a classic and, after only the first few pages, you realize and completely understand why it s regarded as one of the most important works in literature I m always a little anxious when I tackle such important and renowned books for being afraid of not comprehending or loving them War and Peace and Don Quixote, for example as they seem to deserve Not that I m obligated to like them, but I always feel such buzz comes for a reason and I try to at least find out why With The Odyssey, once again, I find that the ones who have read it before me were right it s amazing.I didn t have plans to read The Odyssey any time soon I ve never devoted much time to epic poems and this one has than 12,000 verses , but because I ve been eying Ulysses on my shelves for quite some time, I decided to prepare myself for it and read about Odysseus with a great group here on Goodreads To call Homer s book simply a preparation for Joyce s work is now not only unfair, but also absurd to me However, I m glad that I finally read it, whatever the reason behind it was The Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus s Ulysses journey back to his home Ithaca to return to his wife Penelope and son Telemachus after twenty years of absence Our hero left his home to fight in the Trojan War that alone lasted ten years and encountered too many obstacles that kept him away for another ten years Back in Ithaca, people had already lost hope that he could still be alive and his wife was being courted by suitors who wanted to marry her.Alongside the emotional and heartfelt story, what grabbed my attention here was the poem s style and structure For a work that s believed to have been written in the 8th century BC, its quality and refinement certainly amazed me Some of the story is told through flashbacks, some of it is told through different narrators and its narratives are non linear, so I was positively surprised.I could try to write an analysis about the recurring themes on the book vengeance, spiritual growth, hospitality or try to decipher its symbolism much has been written about Odysseus s bow, Laertes s shroud, the sea , but I feel I would fail and wouldn t be able to do it in a deep level, especially after having read the great introduction and notes written by Bernard Knox.What kept me away from Homer s work was the fear that it would be too dense and heavy on mythology it is mythological, of course , making it hard for me to understand it Although labored, the narrative is quite simple and easy to follow Knox s notes were a great companion to fill in the details I needed to comprehend the book in a deeper level.Rating it s my belief that a great book not only satisfy your expectations, but also inspire you to delve further into its writer s other works, similar subjects or even other books from the same time period The Odyssey raised my interest about Greek mythology and The Iliad, so I guess it served its purpose with high colors Because of that, 5 glowing and beautiful stars.

  9. says:

    What can I say about this book that hasn t been said already I m sure that the influence and importance of it has been discussed to death already, so I won t even get started on that.My reading experience was surprisingly pleasant I didn t expect to get so invested I found the language a bit hard at first, but once I got used to it which didn t take all too long , I was able to fully enjoy the story I m glad that I finally read this classic piece of work, and it s definitely understandable that it s as famous as it is.

  10. says:

    If you re into stuff like this, you can read the full review.Representation of Human The Odyssey by Homer translated by Robert Fitzgerald read by Dan Stevens I humbly declare this book to be the greatest literary work of mankind If you don t learn Greek worth it just to read this Meisterwerk, never mind the rest of the immortal trove of Greek literature you can read it in so many translations that have become classics in their own use of the English language, Fagles and Murray, just to mention two Oh, what the Hades, let s throw in a third, not just for its brilliant translation, but also owing to the exotic character behind it no less than Lawrence of Arabia The Homeric poems were sung in a less enlightened time, in comparison with the later Greek tragedies, and with the later epics too Apollonius Argonautica was composed, post Greek Tragedy, and his audience would have been, no doubt, familiar with Euripides Medea Questions such as how justice and revenge affect societies were addressed by Aeschylus in the Oresteia likewise, the reception of the anthropomorphic gods, and their pettiness, was raised by Euripides in Hippolytus and the Bacchae Further, the real nature and brutality of warfare was also raised in the Trojan Women Throw in how one state views another state, and questions of racial identity, and you have The Persians by Aeschylus, and Medea by Euripides Additionally, if you include Philoctetes by Sophocles, and the issue of how youth should conduct themselves is also raised If you consider, too, Ajax by Sophocles, and you find that the bloodthirsty myths of an earlier age are filtered through questions that C5 Athenian society faced What is better, the brute force of an unsophisticated Ajax, or the sophistry and rhetorical arguments of Odysseus in Ajax By the time we arrive at Virgil, and The Aenied, brutal events such as the death of Priam by Neoptolemus in Aeneid Book II, are tempered with a enlightened approach Neoptolemus is condemned for killing Priam, and rightly so, as mercy is important, and exemplifies the Romanitas of Sparing the humble, and conquering the proud However, Aeneas doesn t show mercy in his killing of Turnus at the end of Book XII If you re into Greek Literature, read on.

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